Nicotine thickens the blood which makes it move slower so that it can not get to through the smaller blood vessels of the foot and ankle. This can cause delayed healing at times during an injury and or surgery. The good news is that this is reversible if smoking is stopped.
Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the ligament (plantar fascia) on the bottom of the foot that attaches to the heel bone. This also commonly referred to as a heel spur which is treated the same way. Consistent stretching though out the day, rolling therapy, custom orthotics and or injection therapy can cure plantar fasciitis.
Achilles tendonitis is inflammation and or degradation of the tendon that can occur where it attaches to the back of the heel or higher up in tendon itself. Physical therapy that focuses on eccentric strengthening has been shown to improve and cure achilles tendonitis. New advances in stem cell injection therapy and surgery have also lead to minimally invasive methods to treat chronic achilles tendonitis.
Cortisone is an anti inflammatory that is injected directly to the sight of inflammation. It is best to not give cortisone injections into tendons because it weakens the tendon and cause it rupture. Exercise should be reduced and or modified for 2-4 weeks after the cortisone injection depending on the location of the injection. Cortisone injections can be repeated every 3 months as needed.